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工业4.0战略指南:国产PLC与企业数字化的六大关键步骤

2017/3/31 19:08:12      点击:

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现在就宣布互联数字技术引发的第四次工业革命已经到来,似乎还为时尚早。但德国国家科学与工程学院院长孔翰宁(Henning Kagermann)在2011 年就曾用 “”一词来描述政府支持的产业创新。

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工业4.0一词是指数字技术领域中几个主要的创新结合,目前正逐步迈向成熟,对能源和制造业的转变起着很大作用。这些技术包括先进的技术和;可编程控制器PLC;先进的传感器技术;云计算;物联网;数据采集和分析;数字建造(包括);软件即服务以及其他新的营销模式;智能手机和其他移动设备;运用计算程序驾驶机动车辆的平台(包括导航工具,租车共乘应用程序,送货和乘车服务,以及自动驾驶车辆);还有一个可共同操作的全球价值链,嵌入了所有的这些元素,使遍布许多国家的企业都可以分享。

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节约成本很大程度上是提高效率和整合技术的结果。取代了多余的已有系统,如为运营管理和企业资源规划(ERP)设计的系统,形成了一个单一的,企业范围内,可互操作的整体,这样价格更加便宜。由于近几年来操作系统的用户体验有所改善,员工在工业4.0的环境下工作更加快乐,生产能力也进一步提升。这不仅降低了培训和员工流动的成本,还提升了运营速度。当预测分析用于支持实时质量控制和维护时,可通过平稳运营和减少停工来节约成本。

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技术网络

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名门棋牌 SHUZIHUAZAIYIXIASANGEFANGMIANXINGCHENGLEGONGYE4.0DEHEXIN:

· 名门棋牌公司运营完全数字化,将纵向(包括每一个职能和整个层级)与横向(连接价值链中的供应商、合作伙伴、分销商,并在其中无缝传输数据)整合。以尖端的库存管理系统为例,该系统连接着零售商、配送中心、运输者、制造商和供应商。每一部分都可以完全接收到关于其他部分的供应水平、地点和自动完成订单的数据,并触发维护和升级。这缓解了典型供应链中存在的过剩和短缺问题,使供应链可以弥补其自身突然中断(如自然灾害)引发的问题,并且可以很容易的在特定地理位置测试新的产品和服务。

再举一个更为先进的例子,在设计灵活的制造设施的过程中,会使用可编程执行大部分的操作。这些代表着物理世界的虚拟化。新产品以及全新的装配线,事实上在投入应用前可还原成软件。模拟一个新的工厂设计,测试它的缺陷,并在物理机械方面投资是极其容易的,但只有当目的明确,它才会运行的很好。这些设计进步使产品更容易推向市场,价格更便宜,这反过来又使测试尚未全面推出的新产品也更加容易,价格也更便宜。

· 产品和服务的重新设计将与定制设计的软件相融合,使他们具有良好的反馈性和交互性,与周围的其他产品活动一道采集、记录本身的活动和结果信息。当采集、分析数据时,这些产品和服务所产生的数据就会表明他们是如何运作并使用的。例如,在装运港或建筑工地上使用的设备,如今可以检测潜在的机械故障,并进行预防。该设备的下一代产品将能够比较不同机器的运行效率,并给出更加有效的部署建议。另一个例子是汽车软件,这种软件在不断升级,通过下载软件升级包,对汽车、卡车和其他车辆进行维修,从而代替机械维修人员。

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· 名门棋牌与客户更紧密的互动,得益于这些新的流程、产品和服务。工业4.0使价值链更具有回馈性,使工业制造商能够更直接地接触到终端客户,并相应地调整他们的商业模式。像飞机引擎和软件这样多样化的产品,越来越倾向于以服务的形式按需提供。这样的例子很多,比如生产空气压缩机的公司阿特拉斯·科普柯(Atlas Copco),总部坐落在瑞典的纳卡市。该公司逐渐停止了直接销售设备,而是转向按实际使用量的压缩空气。机器在客户方现场安装,可以监控压缩空气的流量,并根据客户的需要调整输出。

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当然,与相关的挑战也有很多。这要求开放数据和合作,但需要的开放程度可能会让很多公司感到不适应。必要的技术能力和人力技能经常会供不应求。这涉及到全新且陌生的组织生产方式。而且,也许最令人生畏的是,它代表了突破传统的思维方式;必须在当下开始进行投资,而许多实现工业4.0的产品和流程仍是未知数。

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PINGTAIZAIHULIANWANG4.0DEBEIJINGXIASHIFEICHANGCHENGGONG,YINWEIZHEISHIJINGJIXUEJIASUOZHOUZHIDEYIZHONGXIANXIANG—SUODINGXIAOYING。YIDANKEHUZHUANXINYUSHIYONGYIGEJISHUQUANMIANDEPINGTAI,YOUQISHITIGONGDUOZHONGFUWU、FEIYONGDIJIANQIEYONGHUWANGLUOBUDUANKUODA,ZHEIJIANGSHIGENGHUANPINGTAIBIANDEYUELAIYUENAN。MEIGEXINKEHUXIWANGNENGGOULIANJIEDAOZIJISUOZAIDESHANGYEWANGLUO,YINCIXINKEHUYEHUIJIARUZHEIGEPINGTAI。HULIANWANGDEBEIJINGSHIDESUODINGXIAOYINGDEDAOLEJINYIBUDEQIANGHUA。

LIRU,ZAIWEILAIDE20NIANHUO30NIANLI,TAIYANGNENGDIANCHIBANZHIZAOSHANGPINGTAIHENKENENGHUITONGGUOGONGYE4.0LIANJIEDAOQITAYIXIEGONGSIDEPINGTAI。FANGUOLAI,ZHEIYEHUIYINGXIANGDAOTAIYANGNENGDIANCHIBANKEHUDEXUANZE。SUIZHEZHEIXIEKEHUZENGJIAXIANGGUANJISHU,TAMENHENKENENGHUIFAXIANTAMENDECAOZUOSUODINGZAILEMOUGESHENGTAIXITONG,ERJINGZHENGDUISHOUDEKEHUKENENGBEISUODINGZAILINGYIGEBUTONGDESHENGTAIXITONG。ZUIZHONG,LIANGGEHUOSANGEPINGTAIKENENGHUIFUGAIDABUFENXINGYE,JIUXIANGPINGGUODEiOSHEGUGEDEANZHUOXITONGXIANZAIZAIZHINENGSHOUJIXINGYEPINGFENQIUSE。ZAIGONGYE4.0SHIDAI,JIUXIANGZAIQITAJISHULINGYU,SHEIYONGYOULEKEYIHUODEKEHUDEPINGTAI,SHEIJIUKEYIRONGRUQITAXUDUOQIYEDEJICHENGGONGZUOZHONG。

全球化加速者

YOUYUDISICIGONGYEGEMINGTONGGUOSHIJIEGEDIDEGONGYINGLIANHECHUANGANQIWANGLUOSHIDEQIYEHEGUOJIAJIEHEDEGENGJIAJINMI,TAHUIJIAKUAIQUANQIUHUADEJINCHENG。YUCITONGSHI,TAYEHUISHIBENTUQIYEJINMILIANXIZAIYIQI。ZHEIYEJIESHILEWEISHENMEDIAOCHAJIEGUOYINDIQUCHAYIHUIDABUXIANGTONG。YAZHOUQIYE,YOUQIRIBENQIYEHEZHONGGUOQIYE,YUJIJIANGCONGGONGYE4.0DESHUZIHUAZHONGHUODEZUIDASHOUYI,QICISHIMEIZHOUDIQUDEQIYE,ZAIHOUSHIOUZHOUHEZHONGDONGDIQUDEQIYE。RIBENQIYEMUQIANYIJINGSHIGAILINGYUDEJIAOJIAOZHE,ERMEIGUOQIYEYUOUZHOUQIYEJINSUIQIHOU。GEDIQUDEQIYEDOUXIWANGNENGGOUZAIWUNIANZHINEIGENSHANGJIAOBU(JIANBIAOER)。

随着在世界各地扎根,新兴国家可能会获益最多。他们可以利用数字化在横向整合中提升效率,可以向全球的制造商提供原材料、零部件和组件。他们和工业4.0平台合作的越紧密,能够吸引的潜在客户也会越多。

他们强大的整合力能够在面临政治分歧时也能获得力量—当许多国家的政府正在考虑加大国际贸易的难度。事实上现在不管是人还是产品,跨境的难度的确在不断加大。但是工业4.0能够克服这些壁垒,它可以使这些公司只转让他们的知识产权,包括他们的软件。这样可以让每个国家都维持自己的制造网络。举个例子,未来名门棋牌的飞跃能够让每个公司在任何地方开设店铺,并且可以制造零部件、备件以及(有潜力的)工业设备而无需配送这些成品件。运营会同时变得更加国际化和本土化。

SHANGWEIJIEJUEDEWENTIHAIYOUHENDUO。LIRU,XIANGJIAOYUZHISHIZIBENHEHOUXUZHICHIDENGWUXINGZICHAN,ZHENGFUSHIFOUHUIGAIBIANTAMENDEHAIGUANXINGDONGHESHUISHOUJIEGOULAIYINGDUIGEZHONGSHIWUSHANGPINJIAZHIDEZHIXIANXIAJIANGNI?SHUZIZHIZAOGONGCHANGSHIFOUJIANGLAIHUIBEIKANZUOSHIYIGEWANZHENGGUIMODESHENGCHANDIDIAN?ZHEILEIDEZHIZAOHUICHUANGZAOGONGZUOJIHUIMA?HUOSHIYONGJISHUQUDAIRENLI?SUIZHERUANJIANHEFUWUDEZHISHICHANQUANJIAZHISHANGSHENG,HUICHUXIANXINDEWANGLUOANQUANTIAOZHANMA?CHANPINDEZHONGSHENGZHUIZONGHUIRANGGUANYUTOUQIEZHISHICHANQUANDEQUANQIUGUIZEDESHISHIYIJIZHUICHAWEIGUIXINGWEIBIANDEGENGJIARONGYIMA?JIGESHIJIDEQUANQIUHUAJINCHENGYIZHIZAITICHUXINDETIAOZHANHEFENGXIAN;XIANZAIWOMENYOUZHANZAIYIGEQUANXINDEJISHUSHENGHUOFANGSHIDEBIANYUAN,TIAOZHANHEFENGXIANKENENGYEHUIYIWOMENBUSHUXIDEXINXINGSHICHUXIAN。

您的公司道路

SHUZIHUANENGLIDUIYUXIETONGGONGYE4.0FAZHANZHIGUANZHONGYAO。FAZHANSHUZIHUANENGLIXUYAOSHIJIANHEJINGLI;XUNXUJIANJINDEFANGFAFEICHANGZHONGYAO。DANQIYEBIXUXUNSUXINGDONG,ZHEIYANGCAIBUHUISHIQUDUIJINGZHENGDUISHOUDEXIANFAYOUSHI。NEIXIECHENGGONGQIYEDOUZUNXUNLEYIXIALIUGEGUANJIANBUZHOU。

预先制定工业4.0战略蓝图。先评估自己当前的数字化成熟度,与企业需要达到的目标做一个对比。然后设定一个清晰的目标以缩小差距。给那些会为业务带来最多价值的战略举措足够的优先度,并确保这些举措与企业的整体战略相一致。获得公司各方领导层对这个方案的支持,并确保这一支持能够公司上下周知,因为公司员工更希望这些决定是基于领导层的意愿。

从试点项目开始。用这些试点项目来建立概念验证并演示其商业价值。不是每个项目都会成功,但它们都将帮助您了解适合您公司的方法。通过早期的成功您也可以从公司获得更多的投入,并且可以为更大的展示争取融资。对于早期的试点项目,要限定在一个相对窄的初始范围,但是要融入工业4.0的端至端的概念,从材料到客户交货(和售后服务)。在设计上要符合实际,以弥补标准或基础设施的缺失。与公司以外的数字化领导者一起合作,与创业公司、大学以及行业组织一起合作以加快企业的数字化创新。

确定所需要的能力。基于从试点项目上吸取的教训,详细绘制出企业实现目标所需的能力,并制定蓝图以建设(或获得)这些能力。要囊括那些可以推进企业业务流程的技术引擎,比如精心设计的用户界面、灵活又功能强大的IT基础设施。还要包括招募和发展称职的员工,并吸引合适的公司进行战略合作。公司布局工业4.0是否能成功将取决于所能运用的技能和知识。

成为数据分析大师。要在工业4.0的背景下取得成功,企业分析数据以及用创新和高效的方式利用这些数据的能力非常重要。建立跨职能的分析能力,这需要和整个企业的战略紧密联系在一起,同时充分利用内部员工和外部专家的意见。制定一套方法,能够分析来自不同业务部门的综合数据,例如,来自公司质量部门、物流部门和工程部门等(此前可能已经有独立互斥的监管制度)的数据,并将这套方法应用到尽可能多的领域,尤其是那些让您公司脱颖而出或者吸引客户的领域。要通过智能系统的设计了解如何从数据中获得价值,使用实时分析来为客户量身定制产品,从而不断优化流程。大处着眼,但要以“概念验证”项目从小处着手。

转变成数字化企业。抓住工业4.0的全部潜力很可能会引起公司实践方法和态度的大变化。要从上层定调,最高领导层和股东要有明确的领导、支持和愿景。培育数字化文化:企业的所有员工都需要像熟练掌握技术的内行一样思考和行动,他们需要愿意尝试去学习新的工作方式,并相应地调整日常流程。请记住,一旦企业开始实施工业4.0,改变就不会停止。企业需要比过去更快速地不断重新塑造能力,从而在这场竞赛中独占鳌头。

用生态系统的角度来看问题。为客户制定完整的产品和服务解决方案。如果企业不能独立提供综合性的方案,可以与合作伙伴或平台进行合作。有时外部合作并不容易,也许可能会考虑通过收购达成合作目的。但是,要想办法拓展公司的边界,比如提升技术标准,从而从中获利。当企业主动了解消费者行为,并能够让自己的公司在伙伴、供应商和客户的复杂生态系统中扮演重要角色,突破也就应运而生。

ZUIHOU,BUYAOZHIMIYUXUANCHUANCHAOZUO,YAOJIAOTASHIDI。GONGYE4.0DUINEIXIESHENANQIZHONGJIAZHIDEGONGSIERYANSHIJUDADEFUYIN。ZAIMAIXIANGGONGYE4.0DEGUOCHENGZHONGJIANGCHAOYUENINGONGSIDEBIANJIE,BINGHENYOUKENENGHUICHAOYUENINSUOKAIZHANYEWUDEGUOJIADEBIANJIE。

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